Cleveland Restoration Society

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    In Cleveland, some of the city’s earliest pioneers in civil rights were decades removed from the national movement, but their efforts to improve the economic, educational, and housing standards of African Americans in the city helped set the stage for later coordinated action. Thomas Fleming became Cleveland’s first black city councilman in 1909, and helped African Americans obtain municipal jobs and secure housing in the Central neighborhood. John O. Holly strong founded the Future Outlook League in 1935 to help blacks in Cleveland find employment.